Conditions Overview

The vast majority of Spinal conditions are linked to the damaging, shifting or expanding or one or more aspect of the spine. These alterations usually put pressure on the spinal nerve, an integral part of the nervous system (what makes you feel). Excessive pressure on this nerve causes pain, numbness or tingling in various parts of the body depending on where the problem is located. Don’t jump to conclusions on what you think may be wrong until you talk to a specialist. There can be various causes for many of the symptoms you experience. At APEX we thoroughly exam your imaging and physical sensations to devise the exact source of your problems.

Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease

Symptoms: Neck pain, neck stiffness, weak arms, shoulders, tingling, or numbness Cause: Nerves in the upper spine getting pinched

Herniated Disc

Symptoms: Pain, numbness, weakness in arms or leg Cause: The soft cushion between the spinal bones gets damaged causing bones to rub up against each other.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Symptoms: Pain, numbness or weakness in the corresponding areas to the affected area of the spinal nerve.
Cause: Any situation in which pressure or irritation is applied to the cervical nerve in the spine. (Cervical: Herniated disc, spinal stenosis, degenerative disc).

Cervical Spondylosis

Symptom: Neck pain, less range of motion, pain from neck movement
Cause: The wear and tear caused by ageing on the bones located in the neck

Cervical Spondylolisthesis

Symptoms: Neck pain that extends to the shoulder and or elbow. Pain, numbness, weakness in arms and legs. Severe cases loss of coordination.
Cause: A vertebrae in the neck shifting forward on the adjacent vertebrae

Enthesopathy of the Hip (including Trochanteric Bursitis)

Symptoms: Pain where the tendon inserts into the bone
Cause: Chronic overuse of a tendon where it becomes inflamed where connected to the bone


Symptoms: Lack of coordination, weakness, lack of control of body
Cause: Compression on the spinal cord or displaced disc material in the cervical cavity of the spine usually caused by blunt trauma.


Cause: A compressed nerve in the spine causing pain
Symptoms: Pain, numbness, weakness in arms and legs


Cause: A displaced disc or bone spur on the narrowing of the spine that compresses part of the nerve on the spinal cord
Symptom: Pain that starts in the lower back and shifts through the hips buttox and down a leg (typically only one leg)


Cause: the curving of the spine in an irregular degree. There are many types

  • Congenital: birth defect
  • Neuromuscular: abnormal muscles or nerves
  • Degenerative: traumatic illness
  • Idiopathic: no identifiable cause
Symptoms: Uneven shoulders, one shoulder blades more prominent, uneven waste, one hip higher than counterpart.

Spine Instability

Cause: The lack of tension typically due to ageing of the spinal disc in many cases causing it to bulge or become displaced
Symptoms: Low back pain, sometimes down the leg

Spinal Stenosis

Cause: The abnormal narrowing of the spinal cavity causing pressure on the spinal nerve
Symptoms: feelings of tiredness or heaviness in the legs


Cause: The exaggerated rounding of the spine caused by malformation of bones over time or ageing
Symptoms: Pain, disfiguring (hunching)

Spinal Fractures

Cause: When more pressure than the bone can support is placed upon the bone causing it to break
Symptoms: Pain in the corresponding area